History of Wine - Morphology
Understanding the anatomy of the grape can be beneficial when it comes to understanding the result of the wine, since the grape contains all the components necessary for winemaking. This anatomy is like a continuous division that begins in the middle with the seeds in the center:
1. The first zone is composed of a high density of sugars, mainly located around the seeds. In addition, malic acid is present, which can be transformed into sugar through a process of gluconeogenesis. This area usually has a green tint.
2. The second zone is located inside the outer zone, and the concentration of sugar decreases as you move inward. However, the concentration of tartaric acid increases. Malic acid and tartaric acid are the most important chemicals in grapes, besides sugar. Winemakers are responsible for deciding the proportion of these two acids in the final product, and both are quite important in winemaking.
3. Zone three contains mineral salts, especially potassium. This area includes polyphenols such as tannins, which are found mainly in the outer layer of the grape, as well as anthocyanins, which are the cause of the colors of the wines. It’s also the place where grape’s distinctive flavors are stored, inside the skin.
The way the grapes are pressed influences the organoleptic properties of the must. If the grapes are lightly pressed, the sugar is extracted from the inside of the grape, resulting in fewer polyphenols, which is the case with most fruity white wines. However, if the grapes are pressed more, tannins are extracted, which results in the appearance of the red color.
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