History of Wine - Organoleptic Properties (2)
Taste and aroma
Wine grapes have three main flavors: sweet, sour and bitter. However, there are also a large number of substances in grapes that contribute to flavor in minimal amounts (sometimes measured in parts per million, or even parts per trillion, or even parts per trillion, or per trillion).
The characteristic grape flavor is due to the presence of these substances. The primary flavor of the Vitis vinifera variety is largely determined by the location of these components. The inner regions of the grape are where most of its flavor is found, so pressing is essential to produce wine with primary flavors.
In Sherry and fine wines, which are fortified with saline solution, there is a small touch of salty flavor as a result of the surrounding environment during aging.
In oenology, a distinction is made between a pleasant aroma and a wine’s bouquet. The aroma is a distinctive smell emitted by the grape variety used, while the bouquet is the smell resulting from winemaking. For example, different wines produced from the same grape variety may have the same scent, but different bouquets (if they have been aged differently).
The aromas of grapes with a marked floral character are influenced by a group of chemical substances called monoterpenoids, terpenoids, which include a variety of monoterpenoids, derived from the isoprene unit C5H8 ([C5H8]).
Since monoterpenes are present in large quantities in Muscat grapes, other varieties that have been derived from muscat grapes (for example, Gewürztraminer, Moscatel de Alexandria, etc.) are also high in monoterpenes.
In wines made from muscat grapes (which have the highest concentrations of terpenoids), the must is usually more in contact with the skins. Natural aromas, such as pyrazines (found in coffee, beer, asparagus, etc.), contribute to the herbaceous character of wine.
There are certain varieties from America known as vitis labrusca and vitis rotundifolia (as well as their hybrid varieties) that have a characteristic scent that for years has been labeled “foxy” (fox). It has been discovered that this compound is responsible for the aroma of methyl anthranilate (C8H9NO2).