History of wine - Organoleptic properties
Wine affects most of the senses (except hearing and touch). It has certain qualities that make us feel good (except for hearing and touch). For example, aromas affect the senses of smell, different flavors cause the sense of taste, and colors are observed.
At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, chemical substances that make up all of these things have been discovered. Color, flavor, aroma, bouquet, body and other attributes are found in wine tasting.
The color of red wine is mainly due to the anthocyanins in the grape. Anthocyanins are present in many fruits besides grapes, but their function is similar. Anthocyanins are extracted from the outer layer of grape skin during the maceration process, before tannins. The color of most musts (even those of black grapes) is colorless, so the maceration process is crucial for coloring wines.
Some varieties of Vitis vinifera are classified as tinturier because they produce red must (Alicante Bouschet, Saperavi and Dunkelfeld are some of the most popular examples), but these are exceptional cases.
Winemakers can enhance the color of their wines by including small quantities of these Teinturier varieties. The red or pink color of a wine depends entirely on how the anthocyanins are extracted from the grape skin during fermentation.
Anthocyanin refers to the combination of cyanidin (blue), delphinidin (blue, which can be seen in eggplant and passion fruit), malvidin (purple), pelargonidin (red), peonidin (pink) and petunidin (purple, reddish, orange). During maceration, the proportion of blue anthocyanins changes from purple-red to orange in young wines.
Anthocyanins are unstable chemical compounds that bind to tannins to form more stable polymers with pigmenting capacity. The proportion of anthocyanins in young wines is largely due to anthocyanins, but since they are unstable chemical compounds, they bind to tannins to form more stable polymers with pigmenting capacity.